Telangana Art and Culture

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Telangana is a creative powerhouse, and its wide range of artwork and crafts demonstrates this. The Golconda style, which was developed in the 16th century, is a conventional method of merging many artistic styles. The Golconda design incorporates a hint of brilliant white and gold. The Hyderabadi style emerged in the 17th century as a result of the Nizams’ influence. About 5,000 years have passed in the cultural history of Telangana, India. The region developed into the most significant cultural centre on the Indian subcontinent while the Kakatiya, Qutb Shahi, and Asaf Jahi dynasties—also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad—were in power.

Telangana Art and Culture

Telangana Art and Culture


Telangana is known for its artistic works the most. Telangana is the state that produces the majority of the world’s cotton, hence textile-related arts and crafts are quite popular there. The most popular handicrafts among ladies looking to buy a unique selection of outfits are batik paintings, pochampalli handlooms, Narayanapet handlooms and gadwa handlooms. Read more here about popular art.

Warangal Stone Carvings

Warangal Stone Carvings refer to the intricate and exquisite stone sculptures and carvings found in and around the historic city of Warangal, located in the state of Telangana, India. Warangal was once the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, a medieval Hindu dynasty that ruled over the Deccan region from the 12th to the 14th centuries.

Features of Warangal Stone Carvings

Kakatiya Architecture
The stone carvings are an integral part of the Kakatiya architectural style, which is a unique blend of the Chalukyan and Dravidian architectural traditions. The carvings adorn various temples, forts, and other structures built during the Kakatiya rule.

Intricate Designs
The stone carvings are characterized by their intricate and detailed designs. Artisans skillfully chisel the stone to create elaborate motifs, floral patterns, mythical creatures, and scenes from Hindu mythology.

Temple Art
Many of the stone carvings are found on the walls, pillars, and entrance gates of ancient temples in the region. The carvings often depict various gods, goddesses, and divine beings worshipped during the Kakatiya period.

The stone carvings feature a wide array of iconography representing different deities, including Lord Shiva, Goddess Durga, Lord Vishnu, and various forms of Ganesha.

Influence of Nature
Warangal Stone Carvings often draw inspiration from nature, incorporating elements such as vines, creepers, and flowers into the designs, showcasing the artisans’ appreciation for the natural world.

Historical Narratives
Some carvings also depict historical events and scenes from the lives of kings and warriors, providing valuable insights into the socio-cultural context of the Kakatiya dynasty.

Warangal Stone Carvings stand as a testament to the artistic prowess and architectural brilliance of the Kakatiya dynasty. These carvings have survived the test of time and continue to be cherished as invaluable pieces of India’s cultural heritage. Tourists and history enthusiasts visit Warangal to witness and marvel at the beauty of these ancient stone carvings, which have been recognized as significant archaeological and historical treasures. Efforts are being made to preserve and protect these precious carvings for future generations.

Nirmal Paintings

Nirmal paintings are a traditional form of folk art that originated in the town of Nirmal in the state of Telangana, India. These paintings are renowned for their intricate designs, vibrant colors, and depiction of nature, mythology, and everyday life. Nirmal paintings have a history of over four centuries and are known for their association with the Nirmal craftsmen, who have preserved and nurtured this art form through generations.

Features of Nirmal Paintings

Origin and Materials
Nirmal paintings are believed to have originated during the reign of the Nizams of Hyderabad in the 17th century. They are typically created on a variety of surfaces, including wood, silk, and even cloth. The wooden surfaces are first coated with a paste of sawdust and gum, giving it a smooth texture.

Natural Colors
The colors used in Nirmal paintings are derived from natural sources, making the art form eco-friendly. Traditional colors include natural dyes extracted from vegetables, flowers, minerals, and other organic materials.

Brushwork and Techniques
Nirmal paintings are characterized by their meticulous brushwork. The artists use fine-tipped brushes made from squirrel hair to create intricate details and patterns. Various techniques such as shading, layering, and outlining are employed to bring life to the paintings.

Themes and Motifs
Nirmal paintings often depict scenes from Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata, along with nature-inspired themes like flowers, birds, animals, and landscapes. Mythological and religious figures are also common subjects.

Frame and Borders
Nirmal paintings are known for their distinctive and ornate frames and borders. The borders are meticulously painted with intricate patterns, enhancing the overall beauty of the artwork.

Contemporary Adaptations
While traditional Nirmal paintings continue to be popular, contemporary artists have also adapted the style to create modern and innovative designs.

Nirmal paintings have earned recognition for their artistic beauty and cultural significance. The art form has received support and promotion from both the government and private organizations to preserve its heritage and provide economic opportunities to the Nirmal artisans. It serves as a source of pride for the state of Telangana and continues to enchant art enthusiasts and collectors alike with its timeless appeal.

Chindu Bhagavatham

Chindu Bhagavatham, also known as Chindu Yakshaganam or Chindu Natakam, is a traditional folk theater art form that originated in the Telangana region of India. It is a vibrant and energetic performance that combines elements of dance, drama, music, and storytelling. Chindu Bhagavatham is primarily performed by the Chindu community, who are traditionally known as “Chindu Madigas,” a Dalit community in Telangana.

Features of Chindu Bhagavatham

Chindu Bhagavatham is a form of narrative art, where performers narrate mythological stories from Hindu epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Puranas. The performers present the stories with lively expressions and gestures, engaging the audience throughout the performance.

Dance and Music
Dance plays a significant role in Chindu Bhagavatham. The performers, both men and women, participate in various dance sequences to convey the emotions and actions of the characters in the story. Traditional musical instruments like harmonium, mridangam (a drum), and cymbals accompany the performance.

Costumes and Makeup
The performers wear elaborate and colorful costumes, reflecting the characters they portray. The makeup is distinctive, with bold lines and facial expressions to highlight the emotions and identities of the characters.

Folk Songs
Chindu Bhagavatham includes a variety of folk songs, including devotional songs and other traditional tunes, adding depth and charm to the performance.

Social Themes
Along with mythological stories, Chindu Bhagavatham often incorporates social and moral themes, reflecting the community’s experiences and aspirations. It can be a medium to express their cultural identity and social issues.

Chindu Bhagavatham performances are often held during religious festivals and special occasions in villages and towns of Telangana. The art form has been passed down through generations, and the performances are carried out by the community members who have inherited the skills and knowledge.

While Chindu Bhagavatham has been cherished by its community for centuries, it faces challenges in the modern era, including attracting new audiences and preserving its traditional roots. Nevertheless, efforts are being made to promote and revitalize this vibrant folk art form, as it holds significant cultural importance and showcases the creativity and talent of the Chindu community.

Bidri Crafts

Bidri craft is a traditional metal handicraft that originated in Bidar, a city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is one of the most famous forms of metalwork and is known for its exquisite inlay work on a blackened alloy of zinc and copper, known as bidriware. The craft has a history of over 500 years and is highly valued for its intricate designs and skilled craftsmanship.

Features of Bidri Crafts

Metal Alloy
Bidriware is made using a unique metal alloy, which is primarily composed of zinc and copper. The alloy is known for its deep black color, achieved through a process of oxidizing the metal surface.

Inlay Work
The hallmark of Bidri craft is the intricate inlay work done on the blackened metal surface. Artisans carve intricate designs and patterns on the metal using chisels and then fill these carved areas with silver or brass wires. The contrasting colors of the inlays against the black background create a striking effect.

Floral and Geometric Motifs
Bidri designs often feature elaborate floral and geometric motifs inspired by nature and Islamic art. The designs showcase a blend of Persian, Arabic, and Indian aesthetics.

The making of Bidriware requires a high level of skill and expertise. Artisans, known as Bidri craftsmen, undergo years of training to master the various techniques involved in the craft.

Utilitarian and Decorative Items
Historically, Bidriware was used to create a wide range of items, including hookahs, trays, bowls, vases, jewelry boxes, and various other decorative and utilitarian pieces.

The process of creating Bidriware involves several steps, including casting, engraving, inlaying, smoothening, and polishing. The craft has a significant cultural and historical importance and has been patronized by kings and nobles throughout history. Today, Bidri craft continues to be valued as a symbol of Indian craftsmanship and is sought after both within India and internationally as a unique and beautiful art form. However, the craft faces challenges in terms of preserving its traditional techniques and finding a market in the face of mass-produced alternatives. Efforts are being made by various organizations and artisans to promote and sustain this ancient craft for future generations.

Banjara Needlecraft 

Banjara Needlecraft, also known as Lambadi or Banjara embroidery, is a traditional form of needlework practiced by the Banjara community, an ethnic nomadic tribe mainly residing in the Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and parts of Rajasthan. The craft is an integral part of their cultural heritage and is known for its vibrant colors, intricate designs, and skilled needlework.

Features of Banjara Needlecraft

Vibrant Colors
Banjara embroidery is characterized by the use of bright and bold colors. Traditional pieces often feature a riot of colors, including vibrant shades of red, green, blue, yellow, and orange.

Mirrors and Coins
One of the distinctive elements of Banjara Needlecraft is the incorporation of mirrors (also known as abhla) and metal coins into the embroidery. These elements add sparkle and a unique dimension to the artwork.

Intricate Designs
The embroidery patterns are often intricate and geometric in nature. They may include motifs like flowers, peacocks, animals, and human figures, reflecting the community’s connection to nature and daily life.

Skilled Needlework
The embroidery is typically done using a combination of chain stitch, buttonhole stitch, and cross-stitch techniques. The skilled artisans create detailed and tightly worked designs.

Historically, Banjara Needlecraft was used to adorn garments, especially for special occasions and festivals. However, in modern times, it has expanded its presence to include various other items like bags, home decor items, and accessories.

Banjara Needlecraft has garnered attention not only within India but also internationally due to its unique and vibrant appeal. It is valued for its cultural significance and the skills of the artisans who continue to preserve and promote this traditional craft form. However, like many traditional crafts, it faces challenges in the modern era, such as declining interest and the availability of cheaper mass-produced alternatives. Efforts are being made by various organizations and individuals to support and sustain this beautiful craft, ensuring its continuity for future generations.


South Indian traditions that predominate and Persian traditions that were adopted throughout the Mughal and Nizam dynasties combine to form Telangana’s culture. Since Telugu culture is incorporated into its social structure, it has a very diversified culture. Telangana is vibrant and talented in all forms of art, including literature, music, film, poetry, festivals, and dance.

Cuisine of Telangana

The cuisine of Telangana is a delightful fusion of traditional Telugu, Hyderabadi, and Deccan flavors, offering a wide range of dishes with a blend of aromatic spices and rich taste. Telangana’s culinary heritage is influenced by its geography, climate, and historical interactions with various cultures. Some of the popular dishes in Telangana cuisine include:

  1. Hyderabadi Biryani: Arguably the most famous dish of the region, Hyderabadi Biryani is a flavorful rice dish made with basmati rice, tender meat (usually chicken or mutton), and a blend of aromatic spices. The cooking style involves “dum” (slow-cooking) to infuse the flavors.
  2. Haleem: A nutritious and hearty dish usually prepared during the holy month of Ramadan, Haleem is a rich stew made with wheat, lentils, and meat (usually beef or mutton). It is slow-cooked for hours to achieve a smooth and velvety texture.
  3. Dum Pukht: This slow-cooking technique involves sealing the pot with dough to trap the steam, resulting in tender and flavorful meat and vegetables. Dum Pukht dishes like Dum Ka Murgh (chicken) and Dum Ka Gosht (mutton) are popular in Telangana.
  4. Mirchi Bajji: A favorite tea-time snack, Mirchi Bajji is made by deep-frying long green chilies coated in a spicy gram flour batter.
  5. Gongura Pickle: Gongura is a sour leafy vegetable used to prepare a tangy pickle that pairs well with rice and other dishes.
  6. Sarva Pindi: Also known as “Sarvappa” or “Thappala Chekkalu,” Sarva Pindi is a savory pancake made from rice flour, chilies, and various spices.
  7. Jonna Rotte: This traditional Telangana flatbread is made from jowar (sorghum) flour and is a staple in many rural households.
  8. Qubani ka Meetha: A famous dessert from the region, Qubani ka Meetha is made with dried apricots, sugar, and cream. It is often served with a dollop of ice cream or custard.
  9. Double Ka Meetha: A sweet bread pudding made with fried bread slices soaked in condensed milk, garnished with nuts and saffron.
  10. Pulihora: A tangy and spicy rice dish made with tamarind, rice, and various spices. It is a popular choice for festivals and special occasions.

These are just a few examples of the mouthwatering dishes you can find in Telangana. The cuisine of the region offers a delightful culinary experience, and exploring the variety of flavors is a must for any food enthusiast visiting the area.

Literature in Telangana

Telangana literature is deeply rooted in the cultural heritage of the region and has evolved over centuries, reflecting the social, political, and economic changes that have taken place. Here’s an overview of the key periods in the development of Telangana literature:

Ancient and Medieval Period
Telangana’s literary history dates back to ancient times, with early Telugu literature flourishing during the Satavahana and Kakatiya dynasties (approximately 2nd to 14th centuries CE). During this period, several important works were produced, such as the “Andhra Mahabharatamu” by Nannaya Bhatta, the first Telugu translation of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata.

Vijayanagara Empire
The Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the Deccan region including Telangana, was a golden period for Telugu literature. Poets like Allasani Peddana and Srinatha, known as the “Kavita Pitamahulu” (grandfathers of poetry), made significant contributions during this time.

Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi Period
The Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi dynasties, which ruled the Golconda region (now part of Telangana) from the 16th to the mid-20th century, saw the emergence of Urdu and Persian literature along with continued developments in Telugu literature. The poet Tikkana Somayaji’s “Andhra Mahabharatamu” was completed during this period.

Colonial Era
The British colonial era had a mixed impact on Telangana literature. On the one hand, Western education introduced new literary genres and themes. On the other hand, it also led to a decline in traditional literature as it faced challenges from colonial influences.

Modern Period
The 19th and 20th centuries saw a renaissance in Telugu literature, with authors like Gurazada Apparao (famous for “Kanyasulkam”), Viswanatha Satyanarayana (Jnanpith Awardee), and Sri Sri (Srirangam Srinivasarao) making significant contributions to modern Telugu literature.

Telangana Movement and Post-Independence
The Telangana movement for separate statehood, which culminated in the formation of Telangana as a separate state in 2014, also had an impact on its literature. During the movement, there was an increased focus on Telangana’s distinct cultural identity, leading to the rise of Telangana-centric literature and poetry.

Contemporary Literature
In recent years, Telangana literature has witnessed a diverse range of themes and genres, reflecting the changing societal dynamics and modern perspectives. Authors from different backgrounds have contributed to the contemporary literary scene, addressing various social, political, and cultural issues.

Overall, Telangana literature has a rich and varied history, blending ancient traditions with modern influences. It continues to thrive and evolve, celebrating the unique cultural identity of the region and providing a platform for the expression of Telangana’s literary voices.

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